Bacterial bionanocellulose for heart valve tissue engineering – current status, progress and perspectives
- Developing 3D geometry of entire valve using controlled deposition of cellulose on the mandrel.
My plan is to cultivate the bacteria in such way, that at the end a readily heart valve will be obtained. The growth medium (or one of its constituents) should be formed appropriately. The bacteria will than produce cellulose, but only in the provided shape.
Advanced geometrical Ca- alginate structures were already obtained by me in similar manner (fig.1.).
- Bacterial bionanocellulose scaffold of a heart valve leaflet – geometry and function (see Figure 2.)
On figure 2. it can be seen how easily we can obtain different geometries of leaflets’ shape and compare them with each other. It is a very good material for a publication. The case of optimal heart valve shape is still a question with no unanimous answer.
- Bacterial bionanocellulose interpenetrating bioresorbable fabrics – mimicking the hinge area architecture of an aortic heart valve’s (AHV) leaflets.
Through cell culture on PCL woven fabric, cellulose produced by bacteria will penetrate the fibres and create durable structure with no need for sewing. This method is very favourable as it provides good connection between the leaflet and vasalva.
- Oriented bacteria expansion for production of anisotropic bionanocellulose and its application for HV tissue engineering.
The heart valve is working because of the specific structural orientation of fibres in leaflets. In every layer of leaflet the fibres have anisotropic orientation. This kind of arrangement can be also transferred onto the bacterial cellulose via “placing” the bacteria on the agar in such manner that they can only grow in one direction.
- Yarn based composites of bacterial bionanocellulose – enhancing biocompatibility of the scaffolds.
The cellulose itself may be too feeble for prolonged usage as a HV leaflet. It can be easily enhanced through its application onto the PET or PCL fibres.
- Hydrogel based composites of bacterial bionanocellulose- enhancing biocompatibility of the scaffolds.
It is highly possible, that the cellulose alone will not attract the cells from patient’s blood and tissues to overgrow the scaffold. In some cases it could be a benefit, but in case of smart scaffold concept it is a drawback. Cellulose can be applied as a cover for other materials, more protreptic for colonization.
Please, find below two videos, presenting the performance of heart valve leaflets created from bionanocellulose: